Born in Israel, she studied at the Rubin Academy of Music in Tel-Aviv and the Royal Conservatoire of the Hague. She has appeared in opera houses in Tel-Aviv (in Arik Shapira's Kastner Trial), Rotterdam (Philip Glass's Achnaton), Milan's La Scala (Luigi Nono's Prometheus), as well as at Festival d'Automne in Paris and Lucerne Festival, with Klangforum Wien, Berlin Philharmonic, and other leading ensembles. Until recently she was a soloist of the Dutch Maarten Altena Ensemble, with which she appeared regularly in Europe, Japan, and the Americas, as well as making numerous recordings. She has also performed with Ensemble Modern, the Israeli Contemporary Players, Schönberg Ensemble (Amsterdam), Ensemble intercontemporain, and the SWR Experimentalstudio.
She is well known for her operatic roles, which include a number of works by Chaya Czernowin: Pnima (Stuttgart Opera), Adama / Zaïde (commissioned by Salzburg Festival as "counterpoint" to Mozart's Zaïde), and In nite Now (premiered in 2016/17 at the Flemish Opera). She has also appeared in Johannes Kalitzke's Die Besessenen at the eater an der Wien, Franco Donatoni's Abyss at the Casa da Música in Porto, Karlheinz Stockhausen's Sonntag aus Licht at Cologne Opera, and Giancarlo Menotti's Medium in Rotterdam. Her concert repertoire includes Gustav Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde, which she performed with the Orchestre Symphonique de Mulhouse, Symphony no. 2 (with Israel Symphony), Symphony no. 3 (with Jerusalem Symphony), as well as Verdi's Requiem (performed at Ljubljana Festival), Morton Feldman's 3 Voices (in Madrid), John Cage's Songbooks (with the Israeli ensemble Musica Nova), and Luigi Nono's Guai ai gelidi mostri (Salzburg and Vienna festivals). She has appeared under eminent conductors such as Steven Sloane, Ingo Metzmacher, Kenneth Weis, Kenneth Montgomery, Ivor Bolton, Dan Ettinger, Ilan Volkov, Peter Rundel, Friedemann Layer, Gabriel Garrido, Peter Dijkstra, Otto Tausk, and Reinbert de Leeuw.
Noa Frenkel is a cofounder of the Kassiopeia a cappella vocal quintet, with which she recorded all the books of madrigals by Carlo Gesualdo da Venosa.